Install with Istioctl
Follow this guide to install and configure an Istio mesh for in-depth evaluation or production use. If you are new to Istio, and just want to try it out, follow the quick start instructions instead.
This installation guide uses the istioctl command line tool to provide rich customization of the Istio control plane and of the sidecars for the Istio data plane. It has user input validation to help prevent installation errors and customization options to override any aspect of the configuration.
Using these instructions, you can select any one of Istio’s built-in configuration profiles and then further customize the configuration for your specific needs.
istioctl command supports the full
via command-line options for individual settings or for passing a yaml file containing an
custom resource (CR).
Before you begin, check the following prerequisites:
- Download the Istio release.
- Perform any necessary platform-specific setup.
- Check the Requirements for Pods and Services.
Install Istio using the default profile
The simplest option is to install the
using the following command:
$ istioctl install
This command installs the
default profile on the cluster defined by your
Kubernetes configuration. The
default profile is a good starting point
for establishing a production environment, unlike the larger
demo profile that
is intended for evaluating a broad set of Istio features.
Various settings can be configured to modify the installations. For example, to enable access logs:
$ istioctl install --set meshConfig.accessLogFile=/dev/stdout
Install from external charts
istioctl uses compiled-in charts to generate the install manifest. These charts are released together with
istioctl for auditing and customization purposes and can be found in the release tar in the
istioctl can also use external charts rather than the compiled-in ones. To select external charts, set
manifests flag to a local file system path:
$ istioctl install --manifests=manifests/
If using the
istioctl 1.9.0 binary, this command will result in the same installation as
istioctl install alone, because it points to the
same charts as the compiled-in ones.
Other than for experimenting with or testing new features, we recommend using the compiled-in charts rather than external ones to ensure compatibility of the
istioctl binary with the charts.
Install a different profile
Other Istio configuration profiles can be installed in a cluster by passing the
profile name on the command line. For example, the following command can be used
to install the
$ istioctl install --set profile=demo
Check what’s installed
istioctl command saves the
IstioOperator CR that was used to install Istio in a copy of the CR named
Instead of inspecting the deployments, pods, services and other resources that were installed by Istio, for example:
$ kubectl -n istio-system get deploy NAME READY UP-TO-DATE AVAILABLE AGE istio-ingressgateway 1/1 1 1 49m istiod 1/1 1 1 49m
You can inspect the
installed-state CR, to see what is installed in the cluster, as well as all custom settings.
For example, dump its content into a YAML file using the following command:
$ kubectl -n istio-system get IstioOperator installed-state -o yaml > installed-state.yaml
installed-state CR is also used to perform checks in some
istioctl commands and should therefore not be removed.
Display the list of available profiles
You can display the names of Istio configuration profiles that are
istioctl by using this command:
$ istioctl profile list Istio configuration profiles: default demo empty minimal openshift preview remote
Display the configuration of a profile
You can view the configuration settings of a profile. For example, to view the setting for the
run the following command:
$ istioctl profile dump demo components: egressGateways: - enabled: true k8s: resources: requests: cpu: 10m memory: 40Mi name: istio-egressgateway ...
To view a subset of the entire configuration, you can use the
--config-path flag, which selects only the portion
of the configuration under the given path:
$ istioctl profile dump --config-path components.pilot demo enabled: true k8s: env: - name: PILOT_TRACE_SAMPLING value: "100" readinessProbe: httpGet: path: /ready port: 8080 initialDelaySeconds: 1 periodSeconds: 3 timeoutSeconds: 5 resources: requests: cpu: 10m memory: 100Mi strategy: rollingUpdate: maxSurge: 100% maxUnavailable: 25%
Show differences in profiles
profile diff sub-command can be used to show the differences between profiles,
which is useful for checking the effects of customizations before applying changes to a cluster.
You can show differences between the default and demo profiles using these commands:
$ istioctl profile diff default demo gateways: egressGateways: - - enabled: false + - enabled: true ... k8s: requests: - cpu: 100m - memory: 128Mi + cpu: 10m + memory: 40Mi strategy: ...
Generate a manifest before installation
You can generate the manifest before installing Istio using the
For example, use the following command to generate a manifest for the
$ istioctl manifest generate > $HOME/generated-manifest.yaml
The generated manifest can be used to inspect what exactly is installed as well as to track changes to the manifest
over time. While the
IstioOperator CR represents the full user configuration and is sufficient for tracking it,
the output from
manifest generate also captures possible changes in the underlying charts and therefore can be
used to track the actual installed resources.
The output from
manifest generate can also be used to install Istio using
kubectl apply or equivalent. However,
these alternative installation methods may not apply the resources with the same sequencing of dependencies as
istioctl install and are not tested in an Istio release.
Show differences in manifests
You can show the differences in the generated manifests in a YAML style diff between the default profile and a customized install using these commands:
$ istioctl manifest generate > 1.yaml $ istioctl manifest generate -f operator/samples/pilot-k8s.yaml > 2.yaml $ istioctl manifest diff 1.yaml 2.yaml Differences of manifests are: Object Deployment:istio-system:istio-pilot has diffs: spec: template: spec: containers: '': resources: requests: cpu: 500m -> 1000m memory: 2048Mi -> 4096Mi nodeSelector: -> map[master:true] tolerations: -> [map[effect:NoSchedule key:dedicated operator:Exists] map[key:CriticalAddonsOnly operator:Exists]] Object HorizontalPodAutoscaler:istio-system:istio-pilot has diffs: spec: maxReplicas: 5 -> 10 minReplicas: 1 -> 2
Verify a successful installation
You can check if the Istio installation succeeded using the
which compares the installation on your cluster to a manifest you specify.
If you didn’t generate your manifest prior to deployment, run the following command to generate it now:
$ istioctl manifest generate <your original installation options> > $HOME/generated-manifest.yaml
Then run the following
verify-install command to see if the installation was successful:
$ istioctl verify-install -f $HOME/generated-manifest.yaml
Customizing the configuration
In addition to installing any of Istio’s built-in
istioctl install provides a complete API for customizing the configuration.
The configuration parameters in this API can be set individually using
--set options on the command
line. For example, to enable debug logging in a default configuration profile, use this command:
$ istioctl install --set values.global.logging.level=debug
IstioOperator configuration can be specified in a YAML file and passed to
istioctl using the
$ istioctl install -f operator/samples/pilot-k8s.yaml
Identify an Istio component
IstioOperator API defines components as shown in the table below:
The configurable settings for each of these components are available in the API under
For example, to use the API to change (to false) the
enabled setting for the
pilot component, use
--set components.pilot.enabled=false or set it in an
IstioOperator resource like this:
apiVersion: install.istio.io/v1alpha1 kind: IstioOperator spec: components: pilot: enabled: false
All of the components also share a common API for changing Kubernetes-specific settings, under
components.<component name>.k8s, as described in the following section.
Customize Kubernetes settings
IstioOperator API allows each component’s Kubernetes settings to be customized in a consistent way.
Each component has a
which allows the following settings to be changed. Use this list to identify the setting to customize:
- Readiness probes
- Replica count
- Pod annotations
- Service annotations
- Priority class name
- Node selector
- Affinity and anti-affinity
- Pod security context
All of these Kubernetes settings use the Kubernetes API definitions, so Kubernetes documentation can be used for reference.
The following example overlay file adjusts the resources and horizontal pod autoscaling settings for Pilot:
apiVersion: install.istio.io/v1alpha1 kind: IstioOperator spec: components: pilot: k8s: resources: requests: cpu: 1000m # override from default 500m memory: 4096Mi # ... default 2048Mi hpaSpec: maxReplicas: 10 # ... default 5 minReplicas: 2 # ... default 1 nodeSelector: master: "true" tolerations: - key: dedicated operator: Exists effect: NoSchedule - key: CriticalAddonsOnly operator: Exists
istioctl install to apply the modified settings to the cluster:
$ istioctl install -f samples/operator/pilot-k8s.yaml
Customize Istio settings using the Helm API
IstioOperator API includes a pass-through interface to the Helm API
The following YAML file configures global and Pilot settings through the Helm API:
apiVersion: install.istio.io/v1alpha1 kind: IstioOperator spec: values: pilot: traceSampling: 0.1 # override from 1.0 global: monitoringPort: 15050
Some parameters will temporarily exist in both the Helm and
IstioOperator APIs, including Kubernetes resources,
namespaces and enablement settings. The Istio community recommends using the
IstioOperator API as it is more
consistent, is validated, and follows the community graduation process.
Gateways are a special type of component, since multiple ingress and egress gateways can be defined. In the
IstioOperator API, gateways are defined as a list type.
default profile installs one ingress gateway, called
istio-ingressgateway. You can inspect the default values
for this gateway:
$ istioctl profile dump --config-path components.ingressGateways $ istioctl profile dump --config-path values.gateways.istio-ingressgateway
These commands show both the
IstioOperator and Helm settings for the gateway, which are used together to define the
generated gateway resources. The built-in gateways can be customized just like any other component.
A new user gateway can be created by adding a new list entry:
apiVersion: install.istio.io/v1alpha1 kind: IstioOperator spec: components: ingressGateways: - name: istio-ingressgateway enabled: true - namespace: user-ingressgateway-ns name: ilb-gateway enabled: true k8s: resources: requests: cpu: 200m serviceAnnotations: cloud.google.com/load-balancer-type: "internal" service: ports: - port: 8060 targetPort: 8060 name: tcp-citadel-grpc-tls - port: 5353 name: tcp-dns
Note that Helm values (
spec.values.gateways.istio-ingressgateway/egressgateway) are shared by all ingress/egress
gateways. If these must be customized per gateway, it is recommended to use a separate IstioOperator CR to generate
a manifest for the user gateways, separate from the main Istio installation:
apiVersion: install.istio.io/v1alpha1 kind: IstioOperator spec: profile: empty components: ingressGateways: - name: ilb-gateway namespace: user-ingressgateway-ns enabled: true # Copy settings from istio-ingressgateway as needed. values: gateways: istio-ingressgateway: debug: error
Advanced install customization
Customizing external charts and profiles
manifest generate and
profile commands can use any of the following sources for charts and
- compiled in charts. This is the default if no
--manifestsoption is set. The compiled in charts are the same as those in the
manifests/directory of the Istio release
- charts in the local file system, e.g.,
istioctl install --manifests istio-1.9.0/manifests
- charts in GitHub, e.g.,
istioctl install --manifests https://github.com/istio/istio/releases/download/1.9.0/istio-1.9.0-linux-arm64.tar.gz
Local file system charts and profiles can be customized by editing the files in
manifests/. For extensive changes,
we recommend making a copy of the
manifests directory and make changes there. Note, however, that the content layout
manifests directory must be preserved.
Profiles, found under
manifests/profiles/, can be edited and new ones added by creating new files with the
desired profile name and a
istioctl scans the
profiles subdirectory and all profiles found there
can be referenced by name in the
IstioOperatorSpec profile field. Built-in profiles are overlaid on the default profile YAML before user
overlays are applied. For example, you can create a new profile file called
custom1.yaml which customizes some settings
default profile, and then apply a user overlay file on top of that:
$ istioctl manifest generate --manifests mycharts/ --set profile=custom1 -f path-to-user-overlay.yaml
In this case, the
user-overlay.yaml files will be overlaid on the
default.yaml file to obtain the
final values used as the input for manifest generation.
In general, creating new profiles is not necessary since a similar result can be achieved by passing multiple overlay files. For example, the command above is equivalent to passing two user overlay files:
$ istioctl manifest generate --manifests mycharts/ -f manifests/profiles/custom1.yaml -f path-to-user-overlay.yaml
Creating a custom profile is only required if you need to refer to the profile by name through the
Patching the output manifest
IstioOperator CR, input to
istioctl, is used to generate the output manifest containing the
Kubernetes resources to be applied to the cluster. The output manifest can be further customized to add, modify or delete resources
IstioOperator overlays API, after it is
generated but before it is applied to the cluster.
The following example overlay file (
patch.yaml) demonstrates the type of output manifest patching that can be done:
apiVersion: install.istio.io/v1alpha1 kind: IstioOperator spec: profile: empty hub: docker.io/istio tag: 1.1.6 components: pilot: enabled: true namespace: istio-control k8s: overlays: - kind: Deployment name: istiod patches: # Select list item by value - path: spec.template.spec.containers.[name:discovery].args.[30m] value: "60m" # overridden from 30m # Select list item by key:value - path: spec.template.spec.containers.[name:discovery].ports.[containerPort:8080].containerPort value: 1234 # Override with object (note | on value: first line) - path: spec.template.spec.containers.[name:discovery].env.[name:POD_NAMESPACE].valueFrom value: | fieldRef: apiVersion: v2 fieldPath: metadata.myPath # Deletion of list item - path: spec.template.spec.containers.[name:discovery].env.[name:REVISION] # Deletion of map item - path: spec.template.spec.containers.[name:discovery].securityContext - kind: Service name: istiod patches: - path: spec.ports.[name:https-dns].port value: 11111 # OVERRIDDEN
Passing the file to
istioctl manifest generate -f patch.yaml applies the above patches to the default profile output
manifest. The two patched resources will be modified as shown below (some parts of the resources are omitted for
apiVersion: apps/v1 kind: Deployment metadata: name: istiod spec: template: spec: containers: - args: - 60m env: - name: POD_NAMESPACE valueFrom: fieldRef: apiVersion: v2 fieldPath: metadata.myPath name: discovery ports: - containerPort: 1234 --- apiVersion: v1 kind: Service metadata: name: istiod spec: ports: - name: https-dns port: 11111 ---
Note that the patches are applied in the given order. Each patch is applied over the output from the previous patch. Paths in patches that don’t exist in the output manifest will be created.
List item path selection
istioctl --set flag and the
k8s.overlays field in
IstioOperator CR support list item selection by
[value] or by
The –set flag also creates any intermediate nodes in the path that are missing in the resource.
To completely uninstall Istio from a cluster, run the following command:
$ istioctl x uninstall --purge
Alternatively, to remove only a specific Istio control plane, run the following command:
$ istioctl x uninstall <your original installation options>
$ istioctl manifest generate <your original installation options> | kubectl delete -f -
The control plane namespace (e.g.,
istio-system) is not removed by default.
If no longer needed, use the following command to remove it:
$ kubectl delete namespace istio-system