Authorization for groups and list claims

This tutorial walks you through examples to configure the groups-base authorization and the authorization of list-typed claims in Istio.

Before you begin

Setup the required namespace and workloads

This tutorial runs in a new namespace called authz-groups-test-ns, with two workloads, httpbin and sleep, both running with an Envoy sidecar proxy. The following command sets an environmental variable to store the name of the namespace, creates the namespace, and starts the two workloads. Before running the following command, you need to enter the directory containing the Istio installation files.

  1. Set the value of the NS environmental variable to authz-groups-test-ns:

    $ export NS=authz-groups-test-ns
    
  2. Make sure that the NS environmental variable points to a testing-only namespace. Run the following command to delete all resources in the namespace pointed by the NS environmental variable.

    $ kubectl delete namespace $NS
    
  3. Create the namespace for this tutorial:

    $ kubectl create ns $NS
    
  4. Create the httpbin and sleep workloads and deployments:

    ZipZip
    $ kubectl apply -f <(istioctl kube-inject -f @samples/httpbin/httpbin.yaml@) -n $NS
    $ kubectl apply -f <(istioctl kube-inject -f @samples/sleep/sleep.yaml@) -n $NS
    
  5. To verify that httpbin and sleep workloads are running and sleep is able to reach httpbin, run the following curl command:

    $ kubectl exec $(kubectl get pod -l app=sleep -n $NS -o jsonpath={.items..metadata.name}) -c sleep -n $NS -- curl http://httpbin.$NS:8000/ip -s -o /dev/null -w "%{http_code}\n"
    

    When the command succeeds, it returns the HTTP code 200.

Configure JSON Web Token (JWT) authentication with mutual TLS

The authentication policy you apply next enforces that a valid JWT is needed to access the httpbin workload. The JSON Web Key Set (JWKS) endpoint defined in the policy must sign the JWT. This tutorial uses the JWKS endpoint from the Istio code base and uses this sample JWT. The sample JWT contains a JWT claim with a groups claim key and a list of strings, ["group1", "group2"] as the claim value. The JWT claim value could either be a string or a list of strings; both types are supported.

  1. Apply an authentication policy to require both mutual TLS and JWT authentication for httpbin.

    $ cat <<EOF | kubectl apply -n $NS -f -
    apiVersion: "authentication.istio.io/v1alpha1"
    kind: "Policy"
    metadata:
      name: "require-mtls-jwt"
    spec:
      targets:
      - name: httpbin
      peers:
      - mtls: {}
      origins:
      - jwt:
          issuer: "testing@secure.istio.io"
          jwksUri: "https://raw.githubusercontent.com/istio/istio/master/security/tools/jwt/samples/jwks.json"
      principalBinding: USE_ORIGIN
    EOF
    
  2. Apply a DestinationRule policy on sleep to use mutual TLS when communicating with httpbin.

    $ cat <<EOF | kubectl apply -n $NS -f -
    apiVersion: networking.istio.io/v1alpha3
    kind: DestinationRule
    metadata:
      name: use-mtls-on-sleep
    spec:
      host: httpbin.$NS.svc.cluster.local
      trafficPolicy:
        tls:
          mode: ISTIO_MUTUAL
    EOF
    
  3. Set the TOKEN environmental variable to contain a valid sample JWT.

    $ TOKEN=$(curl https://raw.githubusercontent.com/istio/istio/master/security/tools/jwt/samples/groups-scope.jwt -s)
    
  4. Connect to the httpbin workload:

    $ kubectl exec $(kubectl get pod -l app=sleep -n $NS -o jsonpath={.items..metadata.name}) -c sleep -n $NS -- curl http://httpbin.$NS:8000/ip -s -o /dev/null -w "%{http_code}\n" --header "Authorization: Bearer $TOKEN"
    

    When a valid JWT is attached, it returns the HTTP code 200.

  5. Verify that the connection to the httpbin workload fails when the JWT is not attached:

    $ kubectl exec $(kubectl get pod -l app=sleep -n $NS -o jsonpath={.items..metadata.name}) -c sleep -n $NS -- curl http://httpbin.$NS:8000/ip -s -o /dev/null -w "%{http_code}\n"
    

    When no valid JWT is attached, it returns the HTTP code 401.

Configure groups-based authorization

This section creates a policy to authorize the access to the httpbin workload if the requests are originated from specific groups. As there may be some delays due to caching and other propagation overhead, wait until the newly defined authorization policy to take effect.

  1. Run the following command to create a deny-all policy in the default namespace. The policy doesn’t have a selector field, which applies the policy to every workload in the $NS namespace. The spec: field of the policy has the empty value {}. The empty value means that no traffic is permitted, effectively denying all requests.

    $ cat <<EOF | kubectl apply -n $NS -f -
    apiVersion: security.istio.io/v1beta1
    kind: AuthorizationPolicy
    metadata:
      name: deny-all
    spec:
      {}
    EOF
    
  2. Once the policy takes effect, verify that Istio rejected the curl connection to the httpbin workload:

    $ kubectl exec $(kubectl get pod -l app=sleep -n $NS -o jsonpath={.items..metadata.name}) -c sleep -n $NS -- curl http://httpbin.$NS:8000/ip -s -o /dev/null -w "%{http_code}\n" --header "Authorization: Bearer $TOKEN"
    

    Once the policy takes effect, the command returns the HTTP code 403.

  3. To give read access to the httpbin workload, create the httpbin-viewer policy that applies to workload with label app: httpbin and allows users in group1 to access it with GET method:

    $ cat <<EOF | kubectl apply -n $NS -f -
    apiVersion: "security.istio.io/v1beta1"
    kind: "AuthorizationPolicy"
    metadata:
      name: "httpbin-viewer"
    spec:
      selector:
        matchLabels:
          app: httpbin
      rules:
      - to:
        - operation:
            methods: ["GET"]
        when:
        - key: request.auth.claims[groups]
          values: ["group1"]
    EOF
    

    Wait for the newly defined policy to take effect.

  4. After the policy takes effect, verify the connection to the httpbin workload succeeds:

    $ kubectl exec $(kubectl get pod -l app=sleep -n $NS -o jsonpath={.items..metadata.name}) -c sleep -n $NS -- curl http://httpbin.$NS:8000/ip -s -o /dev/null -w "%{http_code}\n" --header "Authorization: Bearer $TOKEN"
    

    The HTTP header including a valid JWT with the groups claim value of ["group1", "group2"] returns HTTP code 200 since it contains group1.

Configure the authorization of list-typed claims

Istio supports configuring the authorization of list-typed claims. The example JWT contains a JWT claim with a scope claim key and a list of strings, ["scope1", "scope2"] as the claim value. You may use the gen-jwt python script to generate a JWT with other list-typed claims for testing purposes. Follow the instructions in the gen-jwt script to use the gen-jwt.py file.

  1. To allow requests with a JWT including a list-typed scope claim with the value of scope1, update the policy httpbin-viewer with the following command:

    $ cat <<EOF | kubectl apply -n $NS -f -
    apiVersion: "security.istio.io/v1beta1"
    kind: "AuthorizationPolicy"
    metadata:
      name: "httpbin-viewer"
    spec:
      selector:
        matchLabels:
          app: httpbin
      rules:
      - to:
        - operation:
            methods: ["GET"]
        when:
        - key: request.auth.claims[scope]
          values: ["scope1"]
    EOF
    

    Wait for the newly defined policy to take effect.

  2. After the policy takes effect, verify that the connection to the httpbin workload succeeds:

    $ kubectl exec $(kubectl get pod -l app=sleep -n $NS -o jsonpath={.items..metadata.name}) -c sleep -n $NS -- curl http://httpbin.$NS:8000/ip -s -o /dev/null -w "%{http_code}\n" --header "Authorization: Bearer $TOKEN"
    

    The HTTP header including a valid JWT with the scope claim value of ["scope1", "scope2"] returns HTTP code 200 since it contains scope1.

Cleanup

After completing this tutorial, run the following command to delete all resources created in the namespace.

$ kubectl delete namespace $NS